BIBLE: HISTORY AND ORIGIN

By: Bro. Jessel F. Mosquera
Former Chapter President
CFD-ORMOC CITY CHAPTER

QUESTIONS:

 Unsa man Balaang Kasulatan (BIBLIA)?

Ang Sacred Scripture is the speech of God as it is put down in writing under the breath of the Holy Spirit. (Dei Verbum #42)

Ug kay ang Balaang Kasulatan hinugpong man nga mga sinulat nga gitawag ug Biblia, busa kini gihulagway sama sa mosunod:

The BIBLE is a collection of sacred books, composed under the positive influence of God and written at various times and places by various men whom God chose for this purpose (INSPIRATION) and which have been received by the Church as inspired (CANONICITY). Or simply the Old Testament and New Testament.

2500-1500 BC

PATRIARCHAL TIME During this time, certain oral traditions seemed to surface
(Gen. 4:23-24) THE SONG OF LAMECH
(Gen. 9:24-27) BLESSINGS OF NOAH

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

1700 BC

Abraham migrated with his kinsmen from “Ur of the Chaldeans” in Mesopotamia to the land of Canaan

1600-1200 BC

SOJOURN IN EGYPT AND SINAI
The famine in Canaan caused the exile of Jacob and his family in Egypt for 400 years.

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

1250 BC

THE START: MOSAIC CORE TRADITION (START WITH SINAI EVENT)
DEUT. 6:6-9 – And these words which I command thee this day, shall be in thy heart: And thou shalt tell them to thy children, and thou shalt meditate upon them sitting in thy house, and walking on thy journey, sleeping and rising. And thou shalt bind them as a sign on thy hand, and they shall be and shall move between thy eyes. And thou shalt write them in the entry, and on the doors of thy house.

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

1200
Probably the death of Moses

1200-965 BC

SETTLING IN CANAAN, MONARCHY

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

1050-586 BC

The Golden Age of Israel

965 BC

REIGN OF SOLOMON

950 BC

YAHWIST TRADITION

The oldest source is the Jehovistic, or Yahwist (J, from its use of the divine name Jahwe—modern Jehovah—or Yahweh), commonly dated in the 10th or 9th century BC.

J includes a full narrative account from creation to the conquest of Canaan by Israel.

Source: Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2007

931BC

Roboam (King of Judah, capital of Samaria)
Jeroboam (King of Israel)

926 BC

DIVISION OF THE KINGDOM

9TH CENTURY (900-801)

SAMARITAN CANON
-contains only the first 5 books of the Old Testament (Pentateuch/Torah)
-used by the separatist Samaritans (only a few remaining today) SAMARITAN CANON

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

8th BC

ELOHIST TRADITION

The second is the Elohist (E, from its use of the general name Elohim for God), usually dated in the 8th century BC.

E is no longer a complete narrative, if it ever was; its earliest material concerns Abraham

Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2007

721 BC

FALL OF SAMARIA, END OF NORTHERN KINGDOM; FUSION OF YAHWIST & ELOHIST TRADITIONS

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

7th CENTURY BC

DEUTERONOMIST TRADITION

Next is Deuteronomy (D, limited to that book and a few other passages), dated in the late 7th century BC
Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2007

5th CENTURY BC

PRIESTLY TRADITION

Last is the Priestly Writer (P, for its emphasis on cultic law and priestly concerns), dated in the 6th or 5th century BC.

P concentrates on the covenant and the revelation of the law at Mount Sinai, but sets that into a narrative that begins with creation.

Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2007

Period of Oral Tradition handed down

YAHWIST (950 BC),
ELOHIST (850 BC),
DEUTERONOMIST (700 BC),
PRIESTLY (6TH CENTURY BC),
ALEXANDRIAN (301-200 BC)

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)/EWTN

400-300 BC

FUSION OF JEPD (JEHOVISTIC/YAWIST,
ELOHIST,
PRIESTLY,
DEUTRONOMIC TRADITIONS)

SEPTUAGINT (“LXX”) [10] HEBREW CANON collected.
Greek translation. Hebrew a dying language; dead by 135 AD.
Greek the common language. Aramaic the common language.

3RD CENTURY BC

ALEXANDRIAN CANON

-contained 56 books
-Greek translation from the Masoretic (Hebrew, Aramaic) texts
-included the Deuterocanon Greek original
-used by Jesus and by the Diaspora
-translated into Latin during first and second century AD.

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

In Alexandria, Demetrius of Phaleron is the librarian of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246 BC); he wanted copies of the Jewish Law for the Library of Alexandria. Such is perhaps the beginning of a Greek translation of the Torah

This work of translation was done by 72 Hebrew scholars who were sent by the High Priest Eleazar.
Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

180 BC

Jesus Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) presupposes a collection of sacred books (Chapters 44-49)

150 BC

COMPLETION OF SEPTUAGINT VERSION

Source: JOSEPHUS, ANTIQUITIES, BOOK II, CHAPTER 8, PARA 5.

100 BC

PALESTINIAN CANON

– considered the Hebrew Bible by conservative Judaizers
-contains only 39 books
-decided at the Council of Jamnia (100 AD)
-criteria for inclusion:
a. scripture must be written in Hebrew/Aramaic
b. must be written within Palestine during some
remote age
c. contents must conform with Torah
d. was written before the time of Esdras (444 BC)

AD – YEAR OF THE LORD

36/37AD

Josephus gave the list of Jewish sacred books

50 AD

Council of Jerusalem

51 AD

FIRST NEW TESTAMENT WRITING
1 Thessalonians

68-70 AD

Jewish Council of Jamnia (or Jabneh)

80-90 AD – DIDACHE WRITTEN

Didache (Greek, “teaching”), ancient Christian manual of instruction, also called Teaching of the Twelve Apostles. It was probably written in Syria during the 1st century, although some critics have estimated a later date of composition. The document was unknown until its discovery in 1873 and its publication in 1883 by Philotheos Bryennios, Greek metropolitan of Nicomedia.

The Didache is a compendium of moral precepts, of instructions on the organization of Christian communities and of regulations pertaining to liturgical worship. It contains the oldest recorded eucharistic prayers and directives on baptism, fasting, prayer, and the treatment of bishops, deacons, and prophets. Revered by many early Christians as equal in importance to the books of the New Testament, the Didache was used to instruct converts. Today it serves as a valuable source of information about early Christian life and belief.

SOURCE: Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008.

90 AD

Rabbi Akiba, an enemy of the Christian Church, decreed another canon of OT. The first to exclude 7 deuterocanonical books

About 95 AD, the Jews at a Council of Jamnia (or Jabneh) submitted their second books to renewed inspection. Apparently, they wanted to exclude from the canon any book which:
-seemed to deviate from the Pentateuch
-was written after the time of Esdras (444 BC)
-was not written in Hebrew
-was not written in Palestine

(For these reasons many of the deuteroi would be excluded. But discussion continued on into the 2nd century even with regard to some of the protocanonical books)

Source: CFD MANUAL

100 (125) AD

LAST NEW TESTAMENT WRITING
2 Peter

CHRISTIAN ERA

| |
NT writers worked with Council of Rabbis at Jamnia collected
LXX; 300 of 350 OT quotes a Hebrew canon of 22/24 books; perhaps
in the NT are from LXX; pressured by needs of Apostolic Church;
Unfixed canon. Unfixed canon.
c. 200 AD |

| [11] |
| |
Fixed canon: end of Fixed canon: end of 2nd, early
2nd century; 3rd century.
| |
Melito of Sardis, |
c. 170 AD |
| |
ALEXANDRIAN CANON PALESTINIAN CANON
45/46 books 39 books
(Lamentations was considered
a part of Jeremiah)

Source: EWTN

110 AD

IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH, St.

Birth and to use the term
“catholic church”

Source: EWTN

120 AD

PAPIAS OF HIERAPOLIS (Phrygia)
+ knew of a collection of the
“sayings of the Lord” to have
been written in Aramaic or Hebrew
by Matthew

Source: EWTN

The protocanonical (from the Greek “proto” meaning first) books are those books of the Bible that were admitted into the canon of the Bible with little or no debate (e.g., The Pentateuch of the Old Testament and the Gospels of the New Testament).

The deuterocanonical (from the Greek”deutero” meaning second) books are those books of the Bible that were under discussion for a while until doubts about their canonicity were resolved (e.g., Sirach and Baruch of the Old Testament, and the Johannine epistles of the New Testament).

The apocryphal (from the Greek “apokryphos” meaning hidden) books have multiple meanings:

(1) a complimentary meaning – that the sacred books were too exalted for the general public;
(2) pejorative meaning – that the orthodoxy of the books were questioned;
(3) heretical meaning – that the books were forbidden to be read; and lastly
(4) neutral meaning – simply non-canonical books, the meaning the word has today.

Another word, pseudepigrapha (from the Greek meaning false writing) is used for works clearly considered to be false.

Source: EWTN

Deuterocanonical

1. Tobit
2. Judit
3. Kaalam ni Solomon
4. Baruc
5. 1 Macabeo
6. 2 Macabeo
7. Sirac

Deuterocanonical

1. ESTER (Greek) – parte sa ESTER (HEBREW)
2. ANG SULAT NI JEREMIAS
3. TULO KA BATAN-ONG LALAKI
– parte sa BASAHON NI DANIEL SA HUBAD NGA GREGO
4. SUSANA – parte sa BASAHON NI DANIEL SA HUBAD NGA GREGO
5. SI BEL UG ANG DRAGON – parte sa ASAHON NI DANIEL SA HUBAD
NGA GREGO

(JUDAISM) 39 or 24 BOOKS?

• PENTATEUCH 5 – 1 = 4
• MAJOR PROPHETS 12 – 1 = 11
15
mao nga … 39 – 15 = 24

71 BOOKS OLD TESTAMENT

44 BOOKS OLD TESTAMENT:
1 -JEREMIAS
-PAGBANGUTAN (LAMENTATION)
-BARUC (KAPITULO 1-5)
-SULAT NI JEREMIAS
(KAPITULO 6 SA LIBRO NI BARUC)
43 –
+ 27 books of New Testament
71 BOOKS

72 BOOKS OLD TESTAMENT

45 BOOKS OLD TESTAMENT:
2 1-JEREMIAS & PAGBANGUTAN (LAMENTATION)
1-BARUC (KAPITULO 1-5) & SULAT NI JEREMIAS
(KAPITULO 6 SA LIBRO NI BARUC)
43 –
+ 27 books of New Testament
72 BOOKS

73 BOOKS OLD TESTAMENT

46 BOOKS OLD TESTAMENT:
3 1-JEREMIAS
1- PAGBANGUTAN (LAMENTATION)
1-BARUC (KAPITULO 1-5) & SULAT NI JEREMIAS
(KAPITULO 6 SA LIBRO NI BARUC)
43 –
+ 27 books of New Testament
73 BOOKS

Ang mga bahin sa 2 ka libro sa DAANG KASABUTAN

ESTER (GRIYEGO)
DANIEL (GRIYEGO)
AWIT SA TULO KA
BATAN-ONG LALAKI, SUSANA
UG SI BEL UG ANG DRAGON)

170 AD

‘PESHITTO’ FIRST NT CANON (excludes the ff. Deuterocanonial books for reason of uncertainty in authorship: Hebrews, Jude, 2nd John, 3rd John, 2nd Peter, James, Revelation

PERIOD OF CONTROVERSY

The following reasons serve as the background for the controversy as to what books are inspired and should be contained in the Bible:
-existence of the three canons (Samaritan, 9th C. BC; Alexandrian, 3rd C. BC; Palestinian, 100 AD -OT)

SAMARITAN CANON – 9th CENTURY BC
-contains only the first 5 books of the Old Testament (Pentateuch/Torah)
-used by the separatist Samaritans (only a few remaining today)

ALEXANDRIAN CANON- 3rd CENTURY BC
-contained 56 books
-Greek translation from the Masoretic (Hebrew, Aramaic) texts
-included the Deuterocanon Greek original
-used by Jesus and by the Diaspora
-translated into Latin during first and second century AD.

PALESTINIAN CANON – 100 BC
– considered the Hebrew Bible by conservative Judaizers
-contains only 39 books
-decided at the Council of Jamnia (100 AD)
-criteria for inclusion:
a. scripture must be written in Hebrew/Aramaic
b. must be written within Palestine during some remote age
c. contents must conform with Torah
d. was written before the time of Esdras (444 BC)

-doubts on the Deuterocanon shared by St. Jerome, Athanasius, Gregory Nazianzen, Gregory the Great, John Damascene, Thomas Aquinas, Cajetan

-increased writing of Apocryphal books patterned after New Testament writings

-teaching of Marcion rejecting most Old Testament and New Testament (Luke, Hebrew,
Pauline Pastoral Epistles)

-rise of Montanism and Gnosticism

-existence of Moratorian Fragment (180 AD), a first attempt of an official list but excluded Hebrew, James, 1-2 Peter, 3 John

-Origen’s Commentary on the Book of Joshua which included the complete New Testament books

-in practice, the Deuterocanons were used by all Christians in liturgy, translations, and versions (Vulgate, Syriac, Coptic, Aramaic)

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

185 AD
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons
Developed a New Testament Canon (without 3 John, James or 2 Peter)

Source: EWTN

190-220 AD

Tertullian, the first to use the term NOVUM TESTAMENTUM applied to the Christian writings of the New Testatment (NT). Then the term Old Testament (OT) to the Jewish writings and NT to the Christian writings.

“There are reasons for thinking that at this date (170AD) the corresponding word “testamentum” was already in use amongst the Latins. In any case it was common in the time of Tertullian.”

Mileto, Bishop of Sardis, c. 170 AD, created the earliest list of books identical to Roman Catholic canon today.

Source: EWTN

200 AD

Muratorian Fragment contained a Canon similar to Trent

Source: EWTN

250 AD

KING EUMENES OF PERGAMOS
Invented the rolled parchment or ‘megillah’

2 Timothy 4:13 “When you come, bring my coat that I left in Troas with Carpus; bring the books too, and especially the ones made of parchment.”

250 AD

Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea
History of the Church written;
referred to James, Jude, 2 Peter, and 2 and 3 John
as “disputed, yet similar to most.”

Source: EWTN

342 AD

Codex Vaticanus (Vatican Manuscript). Legend has it that St. Athanasius brought it to Rome.

The oldest vellum manuscripts are the three great uncial codices of the Bible, the Codex Vaticanus, the Codex Sinaiticus, and the Codex Alexandrinus of the 4th and 5th centuries AD

350 AD

Moratorian Canon (FRAGMENTS)
Includes 7 NT deuterocanonical books.
Also includes other apocryphals:
Epistle of Barnabas,
Epistle of Clement,
Shepherd of Hermas,
Didache,
Gospel of Thomas,
Proto-Gospel of St. James,
Letter of our Lord to Agar.

360 (to 384) AD

EARLY TRANSLATION
Pope St. Damasus commissioned St. Jerome to issue a corrected text.

Source: EWTN

360 AD

St. Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria listed 27 books of the NT

360 AD

The Council of Laodicea, c. 360 AD, produced a list of books similar to today’s canon. This was one of the Church’s earliest decisions on a canon.

Source: EWTN

Source: EWTN

382 AD

JEROME, St. 345?-419
+ secretary to Pope Damasus I in 382
The Vulgate: translated the Bible
(Stridon, present day Yugoslavia)
from Hebrew and Greek into Latin
+ biblical scholar 383-384 in Rome

Source: EWTN

382 AD

Council of Rome ( 382 AD) prompted Pope Damasus’ Decree.
Pope Damasus, c. 382 AD, wrote a Decree listing the books of Trent’s canon.

Source: EWTN

382 AD

The Canon of the New Testament was recognized by an assembly of church officials in Rome in 382 (AD) and Carthage in 397 (AD).

Source: Microsoft ® Encarta

393 AD

Council of Hippo (in north Africa), 393 AD

Council of Hippo (No. Africa) (393 AD), approved a list of OT (Old Testament) and NT (New Testament) Canon same as later in (Council) of Trent.

Source: EWTN

397 AD
Council of Carthage (No. Africa) 397 AD, approved a list of Old Testament) and NT (New Testament) Canon same as later in (Council) of Trent.

Council of Carthage (also in north Africa), 397 AD, from which Protestant and Evangelicals take as the authority for their canon of the New Testament, 27 books, approved the Alexandrian canon of the Greek Septuagint, 46 books, as the canon for the Old Testament.

405 AD

Exuperius, Bishop of Toulouse (405 AD) Wrote to Pope Innocent I requesting a list of canonical books. Pope Innocent listed the Trent canon.

Pope Innocent I (405 AD) (Bishop of Rome, 401-417) Responded to a request by Exuperius, Bishop of Toulouse, with a list of canonical books of Scripture; this list was the same as later approved by the Council of Trent.
Source: EWTN

494 AD

Council of Rome decreed that Latin Vulgate – Church, official interpreter

691 AD

Conformity of the Eastern Church

900 AD

Vulgate universally accepted

1228 AD

Cardinal Stephen Langton created the chapters of both
the Old and New Testaments in the Latin version
of the Bible in 1228 AD.

1228-1263 AD

Cardinal Hugo de Sancto Caro (Hugo de Saint-Char)
CHAPTERS

1450- 1456 AD

Gutenberg Bible, known also as the Mazarin Bible and the 42-Line Bible, it is a Latin edition of the Bible, printed at Mainz, Germany, sometime between 1450 and 1456

It is interesting to note that the Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible, was the Latin Vulgate Bible with the Alexandrian canon, 46 books, of the Greek Septuagint.

October 31, 1517 AD

Martin Luther separated from the Church

1525-31 AD

Tyndale Bible
PRINTING OF BIBLE-PROTESTANT

In 1525 the English reformer William Tyndale translated the New Testament from the Greek text, copies of which were printed in Germany and smuggled into England. Tyndale’s translation of the Old Testament from the Hebrew text was only partly completed. His simple prose and popular idiom established a style in English translation that was continued in the Authorized Version of 1611 (the King James Version) and eventually in the Revised Standard Version of 1946-52.
Note: Authorized Version of 1611 (the King James Version) – still 73 books (with
Deuterocanon)
Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008
1528 AD

Fr. Sanctes Pagninus, a Dominican priest divided the OT chapters to verses

1534 AD

Luther translated the Bible into German
with 73 books, name deuterocanonical with Apocryphal

1551 AD

Robert Estienne (also Stephanus),
French printer, made the Concordance;
divided the NT chapters to verses

1560 AD

Geneva Bible – 66 books; due to Calvinistic and anti-ecclesiastical feelings

1563 AD

at the Council of Trent, 1563,
the Old Testament canon of 46 books following the
Alexandrian Greek Septuagint.

Council of Trent 1545-1563 The canon of OT and NT received final
(An ecumenical council definitions: 45 books in the OT; 27 in
called to respond to the the NT;
heresy of the Reformers); “Henceforth the books of the OT and the
NT, protocanonical and deutercanonical
alike, in their entirety and with all
their parts, comprise the canon and are
held to be of equal authority.” The
ancient Vulgate edition of the Bible was
called the authoritative edition of the
Bible.

Source: EWTN

1582-1609 AD

Douay-Rheims
PRINTING OF BIBLE-CATHOLIC

1611 AD

King James Version, deuterocanonical books still included

1648 AD

The Puritans in the Westminster Confession
opposed the use of deuterocanonical, hence, omitted

Puritanism, movement arising within the Church of England in the latter part of the 16th century that sought to purify, or reform, that church and establish a middle course between Roman Catholicism and the ideas of the Protestant reformers

Puritan theology is a version of Calvinism

Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008

Puritans – In its original meaning it signified those who strove
for aworship purified from all taint of Catholicism . . .

Source: CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA)

1870 AD

VATICAN I.
It reaffirmed Council of Trent

1957 AD

THE DIVISION OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION
OF THE NATIONAL CHURCHES OF CHRIST (US)
have decided to include again the 7 books omitted
by the CALVINIST and PURITANS

1959-1964 AD

VATICAN II.
ECUMINICAL.

Protestant theologians and Bible experts were have agreed that the Catholic Church was right regarding the Alexandrian Canon of the OT which includes the deuterocanonial books

AS a result, Protestant Bible was printed with deuterocanical books with the title Apocrypha (The Oxford Annotated Bible)

Source: EWTN

Pope Benedict XV

The individual authors of these books worked in the full freedom under the divine inspiration, each of them in accordance with his individual nature and character”

Nganong ang Santos nga Kasulatan “linamdagan” man?

Pope Benedict XV- The individual authors of these books worked in the full freedom under the
divine inspiration, each of them in accordance with his individual nature and character”

Ang Santos nga Kasulatan gitawag nga “linamdagan” sa talagsaong paagi….

Ang biblikanhong lamdag nagpasabot nga ang mga balaan ug linatid (canonical) nga mga basahon sa Daan ug Bag-o nga Kasabutan, sa tanan ug sa kinatibukan, nasulat ubos sa lamdag sa Espiritu Santo, sa ingon nga ang Dios mismo maoy ilang “magsusulat” ug ang Biblia “Pulong sa Dios”.
Source: Dei Verbum 11; Catechism of the Catholic Church 105-106

Ang Dios nagpili ug pipila ka mga tawong magsusulat, kinsa isip matuod nga mga magsusulat migamit sa ilang tawhanong galamhan ug katakus, apan inagak sa Espiritu Santo nga naglamdag sa ilang mga hunahuna ug nagpalihok sa ilang kabubut-on, nga ilang gisulat ang buot sa Dios nga isulat.

Ang biblikanhong lamdag, diay, maoy usa ka tuga sa talagsaong kalihokan sa Dios, nga gihatag ngadto sa mga matag magsusulat, sa mga tighashas (editors), ug sa mga tigpundok (compilers) sa mga sinulat, nga sakop sa katilingban, alang sa kaayohan sa katilingban.

Dinhi naumol ang mga balaang teksto sa Daan ug Bag-ong Kasabutan. Niining maong mga teksto nahasukad ang Apostolikanhong Simbahan, nga nagpabiling bugtong tinugyanan sa Dios alang kanato ug sa tanang kaliwatan nga Cristiano.

Nganong nalangan man ang tigpundok (compilers) sa pagtigum sa mga basahon sa Biblia labi na ang New Testament?

Sa wala pa ang tuig 397 AD (Council of Carthage), ang mga nagkalain-laing mga libro wala pa matigum apan anaa gitipigan na sila sa ubang grupo o kahugpungan (congregations).

Ang mga pagpanglutos batok sa Simbahang Catolico, nga misamot kakusog, mipugong aron kining mga libro sa New Testament ma-authenticated and placed under one cover.

Hinuon, kining importante nga trabaho (compilation of the New Testament books) nagsugod sa dihang si Emperador Constantino mihatag ug kalinaw sa Cristianismo (niadtong 313 AD) pinaagi sa paghatag sa mga Cristianos ug kagawasan nga ma-practice ang ilang relihiyon sa Roman Empire. Kini nga dokumento mao ang Edict of Milan.

(Source: Catholic Religion Proved by Protestant Bible)

“Persecution of the Christians was ended, and Constantine’s co-emperor, Licinius, joined him in issuing the Edict of Milan (313 AD), which mandated toleration of Christians in the Roman Empire.”
Source: Microsoft Encarta

Unsa man ang ubang problema nga giatubang niadtong gusto mosuta sa mga sulod sa New Testament?

Sa wala pa ilha ang mga linamdagang mga libro nga ingon niana, daghan pang libro ang nasulat ug gituhoan nga linamdagan usab; BUSA, ang Simbahang Catolico mihimo ug makuting examination.

Iyang gibahin ang mga basahon sa mosunod: Protocanonical, Deuterocanonical ug Apocryphal.

1. Ang Protocanonical books mao kadtong mga libro nga walay duda ug pangutana officially accepted sa Simbahang Catolico nga divinely inspired.

  1. Ang Deuterocanonical books, sama sa Protocanonical books, gidawat sa Simbahang Catolico nga linamdagan human ang mga ebidensya nasuta ug ang mga pagduda napapas mahitungod sa ilang inspired character.

3. Ang Apocryphal books mao kadtong mga libro nga dili linamdagan.

Example. Ang Ebanghelyo adunay 4 ka magsusulat: sumala ni San Mateo, San Marcos, San Lucas ug San Juan. Apan adunay pay laing 11 nga Apocryphal nga apil sa pagpili – busa 15 tanan.

Sa Biblia aduna lamay 1 ka Pinadayag (Revelation), ang katapusang libro sa New Testament ug sa Biblia. Apan apil sa gipilian, aduna pay 6 ka Apocryphal – busa 7 tanan.

Ang mga biblical scholars migahin ug daghang katuigan sa Holy Land aron sa pagtuon sa mga orihinal nga pinulungan diha sa mga sinulat sa New Testament.

 Kinsa man sa katapusan, ang nag-decide unsang libro ang linamdagan ug busa mahaapil sa New Testament o Biblia?

Sa duol na ang 400 AD, ang Simbahang Catolico sa usa ka General Council ginamit ang iyang infallible authority(dili masayop sa mga butang mga may kalambigitan sa pagtuo ug moralidad), finally decided unsang libro ang linamdagan ug unsa ang dili.

DUHA RAY MAHIMONG NAHITABO, INSAKTO ANG SIMBAHAN NIINING GENERAL COUNCIL O DILI?

Kon ang Simbahang Catolico wala masayop kaniadto, nganong masayop man siya karon? Ang Biblia nagpakita sa otoridad sa Simbahan… nga siya wala masayop (infallibility).

(Infallibility, in Christian theology, the doctrine that in matters of faith and morals the Church, both in teaching and in believing, is protected from substantive error by divine dispensation. Source: Microsoft Encarta)

Aduna bay dakong kalainan tali sa unsay gisugo ni Cristo (nga itudlo sa mga Apostoles) ug unsay nahasulat sa New Testament?

Ang atong Ginoo nagsugo sa iyang mga Apostoles sa pagtudlo SA TANAN unsa man gani ang iyang GISUGO. Ang Simbahan kinahanglan motudlo sa tanan.

John 14:26 The Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you everything and make you remember all that I have told you.

Hinuon, ang giingong Protestant Bible mismo nagtudlo usab nga ang Biblia wala maghupot sa tanang doktrina sa Ginoo Jesu-Cristo.

John 20:30 In his disciples’ presence Jesus performed many other miracles which are not written down in this book.

John 21:25 Now, there are many other things that Jesus did. If they were all written down one by one, I suppose that the whole world could not hold the books that would be written.

Ang Biblia ba klaro nga nag-pasabot nga adunay wala masulat nga pulong sa Dios (unwritten word of God)?

Sumala sa mga teksto sa Biblia nga gikutlo nato sa unahan ( John 20:30 ug John 21:25), ang New Testament klarong miangkon nga WALA KINI NAGHUPOT o NAKA-RECORD SA TANANG GIHIMO NI CRISTO UG BUSA consequently SA TANAN NIYANG GITUDLO.

Ug tungod kay ang Biblia “dili kompleto” (incomplete), kini nanginahanglan ug katugbang pag-abag niini. Apostolic Tradition supplements the Bible. (Source: Catholic Religion Proved by Protestant Bible)

Kanus-a nakompleto ang New Testament – and placed under one cover?

Sa tuig 397 AD, pinaagi sa Council of Carthage. Ug gikan niini, ang mga DILI Catolico mikopya o mikuha sa ilang New Testament gikan sa Simbahang Catolico. (Source: Catholic Religion Proved by Protestant Bible)

“We are obliged to yield many things to the Catholics – (for example) that they possess the Word of God which we received from them; otherwise we should have known nothing about it.” (Source: Martin Luther, Father of Protestantism in his comment about St. John Chapter 16)

Hangtud sa 397 AD, ang pipila ka mga Cristyano nakabasa o aduna lamay access sa PARTE sa New Testament – ug dili kompleto. Sa niining maong sitwasyon, magamit ba ang ‘Bible-Alone” theory? Ang tubag: Dili.

Council of Trent 1545-1563 The canon of OT and NT received final
(An ecumenical council definitions: 45 books in the OT; 27 in
called to respond to the the NT;
heresy of the Reformers); “Henceforth the books of the OT and the
NT, protocanonical and deutercanonical
alike, in their entirety and with all
their parts, comprise the canon and are
held to be of equal authority.” The
ancient Vulgate edition of the Bible was
called the authoritative edition of the
Bible.

Source: EWTN

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