Bible Study – WHO MADE THE BIBLE

 

No Bible without the Church -Those who deny tradition,Primacy of Pope and believe in new dogmas of “total apostasy” are really questioning the validity of the Bible.When we say gospel written by Luke,Mark,Matthew, it doesn’t mean we have any evidence that it is written by them. These beliefs are based only on tradition.

 

Video Owned by: MyLightstream

Ang resulta ng maling salin ng Bibliya (KJV)

Ang resulta ng maling salin ng bibliya (KJV) ay maling interpretasyon samahan pa ng bulaan at makasariling mangangaral na ang hangad ay matanyag at magkamal ng salapi…
Ang maling salin ng bibliya ang sanhi ng malaking pagkawasak ng inang Simbahan, ang dulot nitoy pagkabahabahagi at pag kakaiba iba ng paniniwala at pananampalataya…
Ito ang resulta ng mga huwad na religion at libo libong sekta ng pananampalataya ang kanilang private jugdement (sola scriptura) at sola fedi) bibliya lamang ang saligan… ay isang bagong dogmang niyayakap ng mga huwad na mangangaral ng bibliya…. Dapat malaman ng lahat na bago pa ang bibliya, ay may iisang Simbahan na ang umiiral nuon. Ang bibliya ay isa sa producto ng simbahang katolika sa kanya galing ang bibliya ang unang salin ang orihinal na salita ng Diyos…
Sa simbahang tatag ni Jesus galing ang bibliya…
Ang religion at libo libong sekta galing sa bible.. Kumuha ng mga ipapangalan sa bibliya.. kumuha ng karapatan sa bibliya… Hindi isinugo at walang karapatang mangaral. Hindi sa Diyos hindi sa panginoong Jesus..
Kukuha lang ng ipapabgalan sa sekta nila sa maling salin pa……..

 

 

Copyist Error – Corrected

Copyist Error – Corrected

By Bro. G-one T. Paisones

 

      Was Ahaziah 22 (2 Kings 8:26) or 42 (2 Chronicles 22:2) when he began to rule over Jerusalem?

(Category: copyist error)

=NIV OK (22 Lahat)

=NAB OK (22 Lahat)

 

 

Was Jehoiachin 18 years old (2 Kings 24:8) or 8 years old (2 Chronicles 36:9) when he became king of Jerusalem?

(Category: copyist error)

àNIV OK (18 Lahat)

=NAB OK (18 Lahat)

=AMP OK (18 Lahat)

 

 

Did David capture 1,700 of King Zobah’s horsemen (2 Samuel 8:4), or was it 7,000 (1 Chronicles 18:4)?

(Category: copyist error)

àNIV OK (7000 Lahat)

 

 

12. Did Solomon have 40,000 stalls for his horses (1 Kings 4:26), or 4,000 stalls (2 Chronicles 9:25)?

(Category: copyist error, or misunderstood the historical context)

=NIV OK (4000 Lahat)

=NAB OK (4000 Lahat) 1 King 5:6

 

 

13. According to the author, did Baasha, the king of Israel die in the 26th year of king Asa’s reign (1 Kings 15:33), or was he still alive in the 36th year ( 2 Chronicles 16:1)?

(Category: misunderstood the historical context, or copyist error)

=NAB

1 King 15: 33In the third year of Asa, king of Judah, Baasha, son of Ahijah, began his twentyfour-year reign over Israel in Tirzah

2 Chron. 16:1In the thirty-sixth year of Asa’s reign, Baasha, king of Israel, attacked Judah and fortified Ramah to prevent any communication with Asa, king of Judah.

 

Did Solomon build a facility containing 2,000 baths (1 Kings 7:26), or over 3,000 baths (2 Chronicles 4:5)?

            (Category: misunderstood the author’s intent, or copyist error)

            =LIVING BIBLE OK

            1 King 7:26 Four Inches thick = 2000 gallon capacity

            2 Cron. 4:5 Five inches thick = 3000 barrels of water

 

 

Both Ezra 2:64 and Nehemiah 7:66 agree that the totals for the whole assembly was 42,360, yet when the totals are added, Ezra – 29,818 and Nehemiah – 31,089?

(Category: copyist error)

=NAB OK

Ezra 2:65 not counting their male and female slaves, who were seven thousand three hundred and thirty-seven. They also had two hundred male and female singers. 66Their horses were seven hundred and thirty-six, their mules two hundred and fortyfive, 67their camels four hundred and thirty-five, their asses six thousand seven hundred and twenty. = 15623

Neh. 7:67not counting their male and female slaves, who were seven thousand three hundred and thirty-seven. They also had two hundred male and female singers. Their horses were seven hundred and thirty-six, their mules two hundred and forty-five, 68their camels four hundred and thirty-five, their asses six thousand seven hundred and twenty.= 156723

 

 

Did 200 singers (Ezra 2:65) or 245 singers (Nehemiah 7:67) accompany the assembly?

            (Category: copyist error)

            =NAB OK (200 Lahat)

 

 

When Paul was on the road to Damascus he saw a light and heard a voice. Did those who were with him hear the voice (Acts 9:7), or did they not (Acts 22:9)?

(Category: misunderstood the Greek usage or the text is compatible with a little thought)

=NIV OK

9:7The men traveling with Saul stood there speechless; they heard the sound but did not see anyone.

22:9″ ‘I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom you are persecuting,’ he replied. My companions saw the light, but they did not understand the voice of him who was speaking to me.

 

 

56. When Paul saw the light and fell to the ground, did his traveling companions fall (Acts 26:14) or did they not fall (Acts 9:7) to the ground?

(Category: misunderstood the Greek usage or the text is compatible with a little thought)

=AMP OK sa Act 9:7

Act 9:7The men who were accompanying him were unable to speak (for terror), hearing the voices but seeing no one

 

 

 

Did David (1 Samuel 17:23, 50) or Elhanan (2 Samuel 21:19) kill Goliath?

            (Category: copyist error)

            =LIVING BIBLE OK

            2 Sam. 21:19 “At still another time and at same place, Elhanan killed the     brother of Goliath the Gittite

            1 Cron. 20: 5During another war of Philistines, Elhanan (the son of Jair)         killed Lahmi, the brother of Goliath….

            =TNIV OK

19In another battle with the Philistines at Gob, Elhanan son of Jair e the         Bethlehemite killed the brother of f Goliath the Gittite, who had a spear           with a shaft like a weaver’s rod.

 

 

The number of fighting men of Isreal was 800,000; and of Judah 500,000 [2 Sam 24:9]

            The number of fighting men of Isreal was 1,100,000; and of Judah 470,000      [1Chron   21:5]

The account in 1 Chron twice speaks of “all the people” and “all Israel.” The account in 2             Sam does not. Thus, it is possible that the account in 1       Chron is more inclusive, while 2             Sam only deals with the standing         army.

 

 

 

 

David took seven hundred horsemen [2 Sam 8:4] or David took seven thousand horsemen [1 Chron 18:4]

=NAB OK (3 years Lahat)

=NIV OK (3 years Lahat)

=NRSV OK (3 years Lahat)

Inerrancy of Sacred Scripture – Absolute or Limited?

The Inerrancy of Sacred Scripture: Absolute or Limited?

By Bro. Isahel Alfonso

What They Did With God’s Word

Many Biblical Scholars today begun to doubt the absolute inerrancy of Scriptures. Most of those who hold the position that the Sacred Scripture erred in matters of physical reality and history abandoned the general rule of Biblical interpretation as laid down by the Fathers of the Church, that came down to us through Apostolic tradition. Higher criticism also known as historical criticism [1] is a methodology used by modernist and liberal Biblical scholars in order to bring out the full sense of a passage in Sacred Scripture. In the right hands, historical criticism is a valuable tool in proving the historicity of dogma, but at the hands of modernist and liberal Biblical Scholars it is detrimental to the Catholic faith. Pope Leo XIII, commenting on higher criticism of Scriptures said;

There has arisen, to the great detriment of religion, an inept method, dignified by the name of the “higher criticism,” which pretends to judge of the origin, integrity and authority of each Book from internal indications alone. (Providentissimus Deus no. 17)

Using the historical criticism heterodox exegetes set aside the theological and spiritual sense of Scripture and approaches it as an ordinary book that contains historical accounts. In using the scientific methodology of gathering historical accounts it does not consider miracles as historical event. Hence they conclude that the Sacred Scripture contains historical errors when it records miracle accounts (Resurrection, Virgin birth etc.) as part of history. To accept that the Sacred Scripture contains errors and denial of the historicity of miracles lead to a complete rejection of dogma. Fr. Raymond Brown who pioneered the historical criticism in Catholic Biblical Scholarship ends up in denying the virgin birth. In his entry to the “The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible” he said;

In terms of evidence, Is.7:14 currently has less important role in the discussion: first it is widely agreed that it refers to a conception in the eighth century B.C that somehow continued or supported the Davidic line of kings, rather than to the conception of Jesus, second, even the LXX [Septuagint] reading, “Behold, the virgin will conceive and bear a son,” does not necessarily envisage a virginal conception, for the future tense may mean that a woman who is now a virgin will conceive; third, granted that in his infancy narrative Mathew himself probably added the “fulfillment citation” (1.22-23; 2:5-6, 15, 17-18, 23) to existing material, the citation of Is.7:14 did not create the idea that Jesus was virginally conceived but was used to illustrate it.[2]


Furthermore they also attributed error to the writers of the Sacred Scripture.

Isipin na lamang na si San Lucas na buong ingat na nagsuri upang lubusan nating matiyak ang katotohanang (Lc. 1:3-4) ay nagpakita rin ng maraming kamalian.[3]

Translation:

Think of it, St. Luke who meticulously and carefully studied so that we can know the truth (Lc.1:3-4) also shows numerous errors.

Kaya hindi na dapat ikabigla kung madiskubre man na maging si Jesus, na nagturo ng may kapangyarihan (Mt.7:28-29; 22:15-16), ay lumitaw na hindi pamilyar sa mga textong kanyang binaggit mula sa Lumang Tipan.[4]

Translation:

We should not be surprised to discover that even Jesus, who taught with authority (Mt.7:28-29;22:15-16) shows that he is not familiar with the passages He quoted from the Old Testament.

In order to solve difficulties in the Bible, they did not hesitate to compromise Divine inspiration by stating that it was the hagiographers who erred in writing the inspired text. On the first place how can the writers of the Sacred Scripture erred if they are inspired? This is a total departure from Catholic orthodoxy; we must rally for the defense of God’s Word.

Magisterial Teaching On The Inerrancy Of Sacred Scripture

In establishing the inerrancy of Scripture we must first prove that the Sacred Scripture is inspired by God. Inspiration thus means that God is the divine author of the books of Scripture, and this is why the Church reveres them as sacred and canonical.[5] The Council of Trent dogmatically defined the Inspiration of Scriptures;

These [books of the Bible] the Church holds to be sacred and canonical, not because, having been composed by simple human industry, they were later approved by her own authority, nor merely because they contain revelation without error, but because, having been written by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, they have God for their author and were delivered as such to the Church. (Dei Filius 2)

Decades after the Council of Trent new theories on inspiration arises. Some proposed that the scope and inspiration of Scripture is only limited to matters of faith and morals, and outside of these parameters the Scripture can err. Against this heresy on the inspiration of Scripture Pope Leo XIII reaffirmed the long held tradition of the Church that the Sacred Scripture whole and entire, with all their parts is inspired by God and free from all kinds of error (Faith, Morals, history and natural science.

But it is absolutely wrong and forbidden either to narrow inspiration to certain parts only of Holy Scripture or to admit that the sacred writer has erred. For the system of those who, in order to rid themselves of these difficulties, do not hesitate to concede that divine inspiration regards the things of faith and morals and nothing beyond, because (as they wrongly think) in a question of the truth or falsehood of a passage, we should consider not so much what God has said as the reason and purpose that he had in mind in saying it this system cannot be tolerated.(Providentissimus Deus)

Therefore anyone who is a minister of the word of God must above all accept the dogmatic pronouncement of Church on the Inspiration of Scripture. He must not limit the inspiration of the Holy Scripture on matters of faith and morals but accept that the Scriptures whole and entire, with all their parts are divinely inspired by God.

The Effects Of Inspiration

There are numerous effects of inspiration that are open to theological investigation. One is the canonicity of Scripture. But the most debated effect of inspiration is inerrancy, the belief that the Scripture is trustworthy and true, untainted by anything false, erroneous, or deceptive. This follows logically from the divine authorship of Bible if God is the primary author, and God himself is the perfection of truth, then all that Scripture claims to be true must be necessarily be true.[6] During the European Enlightenment Christian tradition on Holy Scriptures was seriously challenged. With the influence of Existentialism in Biblical studies heterodox scholars begun to proposed theories that are contrary to the beliefs commonly held by the Church about Holy Scriptures, such as the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, Historicity of the miracle accounts in the four gospels, the historicity of Genesis chapter 1-11, the belief that Adam and Eve are the precursor of humanity and the Gospel of Matthew as being the first Gospel being written. And at the birth of historical criticism these are no longer theories but have become the foundation of exegesis. Using the historical criticism beyond the norms established by the Church will lead to the rejection of the fundamental dogmas of the Church. Against this error Pope Leo XIII reaffirmed the ancient tradition of the Church in the absolute and positive inerrancy of Scripture.

For all the books that the Church receives as sacred and canonical are written wholly and entirely, with all their parts, at the dictation of the Holy Spirit. And so far is it from being possible that any error can coexist with inspiration, that inspiration not only is essentially incompatible with error but excludes and rejects it as absolutely and necessarily as it is impossible that God himself, the Supreme Truth, can utter that which is not true.(Providentissimus Deus)

According to Catholic teaching on inspiration and inerrancy, the Bible does not make strictly scientific statements. Rather, when the writers of Scripture talk of the natural world, they speak either “figuratively” or “phenomenologically,” that is, according to the way things appear to the senses. References to the rising of the sun, for example, are not actual scientific assertions that insist the earth is stationary and the sun follows an ascending and descending course of motion. Such expressions are based on sense perception and common experience, and many are still used today. Saint Augustine, whose view on this was endorsed in modern papal teaching, holds that Scripture was not written to tell us about “the essential nature of things of the visible universe”. Thus, since the Bible makes no properly scientific assertions, it cannot be charged with teaching error on scientific matters.[7] Since it is now impossible for modernist and liberal exegetes to deny the inerrancy of Holy Scripture, they retorted saying that God as the primary author of Scripture cannot err but the writers employed by God to write down His words fell into error. Against this rationalistic approach Pope Leo XIII addressed this problem;

Hence because the Holy Ghost employed men as His instruments, we cannot therefore say that it was these inspired instruments who, perchance, have fallen into error, and not the primary author. For, by supernatural power, He so moved and impelled them to write He was so present in them that the things which down, and finally expressed in apt words and with infallible truth. (Providentissiumus Deus)

Pope Leo XIII said, “that anyone who maintain that an error is possible in any genuine passage of the sacred writings, either pervert the Catholic notion of inspiration, or make God the author of such error.” We must accept the declarations of the Magisterium regarding the Holy Scriptures in order to safeguard the orthodoxy of authentic Biblical studies. And if ever we encounter difficult passages in the Sacred Writings that appears to be irreconcilable with the rest of Scripture or might contradict history, we need not worry about it, but recall the words of Saint Augustine, “And if in these Books I meet anything which seems contrary to truth, I shall not hesitate to conclude either that the text is faulty, or that the translator has not expressed the meaning of the passage, or that I myself do not understand.”[8]


So what is their escape goat?

In spite of the constant admonition from the Church, liberal and modernist Biblical scholars continue to propagate their heretical belief about the nature of the Sacred Scriptures. During the Vatican II Council, Cardinal Konig of Vienna proposed to the Council that the teaching of the Church regarding the inerrancy of Scriptures must be modified. He proposed that absolute inerrancy of Scripture must be abandoned, and limited inerrancy must be accepted. However, during the deliberation of the Council on the schema of Dei Verbum Cardinal Konig’s proposal was rejected. The outcome of the deliberation is what is now written in the Vatican II document Dei Verbum, which says;

It follows that the book of Scripture must be acknowledged as teaching solidly, faithfully and without error that truth which God wanted put into sacred writings for the sake of salvation.[9]

Liberal scholars when interpreting this passage from the Vatican II document Dei Verbum asserts that inerrancy of Scripture is only limited to matters that deals with our salvation specifically about faith and morals. However, they misinterpreted what the Council really meant. In response to liberal interpretation(s), it is worth it to quote Dr.Sungenis’ words;

The clause “for the sake of our salvation” was added precisely to counter the very idea of limited innerancy. A simple and unbiased reading of the context reaveals this. It says:

“…we must acknowledge that the books of Scripture, firmly, faithfully and without error, teach that truth which God, for the sake of our salvation, wished to see confided to the sacred Scripture. Thus ‘all Scripture is inspired by God…”

How much clearer could it be? It clearly says that:

(a) ”the books of Scripture” are “without error.”

(b)  the “truth” was “confided to the sacred Scripture.”

(c) “all Scripture is inspired.”

Do we see in any of those statements a dichotomy between what Scritpure says about salvation and what is not about salvation? No! It simply refers to Scripture at large, the whole of Scripture, with no separations or divisions into salvific or non-salvific portions.

Hence, if we read the statement of Dei Verbum in light of both its context and the traditional teaching of the Church, we understand that, all of Scripture was inspired to be without error so that it could serve as a firm foundation upon which we can know the truths of salvation. It’s very simple. In other words, Scripture is inspired and inerrant for the sake of our salvation. Everytime we open Scripture and read it we can be sure that its words are trustworthy, and each passage will relate, in one way or another, to our salvation, for we need all of Scripture to know all the truths about our salvation. The veracity of one passage is dependent on the veracity of another, and so on and so on.[10]


Dr. Scott Hahn clarified the disputed expression “for the sake of our salvation”, in his Catholic Bible Dictionary, Dr. Hahn said,

. . .in fact, it should be noted that the penultimate schema of Dei Verbum did refer to “saving truth” (Latin, veritatem salutarem), but at the request of numerous Council Fathers and the urging of Pope Paul VI, it was amended to read “truth” (Latin, Veritatem) alone, so that its scope would not be restricted by the adjective “saving” to matters of faith and morals and nothing beyond. The final and official wording of the Constitution thus tells us the purpose of inerrancy, not its extent.[11]

Both, scholars agree that the phrase “for the sake of salvation” does not imply the extent of inspiration rather it stresses the purpose of inerrancy of Sacred Scriptures. The Church is consistent in teaching the absolute inerrancy of Sacred Scriptures thus we are obliged to accept it entirely without questioning or doubting it.

——End Notes

[1] Historical criticism studies a narrative purporting to convey historical information in order to determine what actually occurred in so far as this is possible. Daniel J. Harrington, S.J, Interpreting The New Testament: A Practical Guide, page 85[2] Keith Crim, gen. ed., The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible: An Illustrated Encyclopedia, suppl. Vol., pp..940-941

[3] Araling Pambiblia Para Sa Mga Dinedebateng Katoliko, page 30, Nonoy Lopez

[4] Araling Pambiblia Para Sa Mga Dinedebateng Katoliko, page 31, Nonoy Lopez

[5] Catholic Bible Dictionary, Dr. Scott Hahn, pp. 383, Doubleday 2009

[6] Catholic Bible Dictionary, Dr. Scott Hahn, pp. 386-387, Doubleday 2009

[7] Catholic Bible Dictionary, Dr. Scott Hahn, pp. 390, Doubleday 2009

[8] Ep. Ixxxii., i. et crebrius alibi.

[9] Dei Verbum No.11

[10] http://bellarmineforum.xanga.com/663127989/question-80—instrumentum-laboris-re-scriptures-inerrancy/

[11] Catholic Bible Dictionary, page 389, Ed. Dr. Scott Hahn

BIBLE: HISTORY AND ORIGIN

By: Bro. Jessel F. Mosquera
Former Chapter President
CFD-ORMOC CITY CHAPTER

QUESTIONS:

 Unsa man Balaang Kasulatan (BIBLIA)?

Ang Sacred Scripture is the speech of God as it is put down in writing under the breath of the Holy Spirit. (Dei Verbum #42)

Ug kay ang Balaang Kasulatan hinugpong man nga mga sinulat nga gitawag ug Biblia, busa kini gihulagway sama sa mosunod:

The BIBLE is a collection of sacred books, composed under the positive influence of God and written at various times and places by various men whom God chose for this purpose (INSPIRATION) and which have been received by the Church as inspired (CANONICITY). Or simply the Old Testament and New Testament.

2500-1500 BC

PATRIARCHAL TIME During this time, certain oral traditions seemed to surface
(Gen. 4:23-24) THE SONG OF LAMECH
(Gen. 9:24-27) BLESSINGS OF NOAH

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

1700 BC

Abraham migrated with his kinsmen from “Ur of the Chaldeans” in Mesopotamia to the land of Canaan

1600-1200 BC

SOJOURN IN EGYPT AND SINAI
The famine in Canaan caused the exile of Jacob and his family in Egypt for 400 years.

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

1250 BC

THE START: MOSAIC CORE TRADITION (START WITH SINAI EVENT)
DEUT. 6:6-9 – And these words which I command thee this day, shall be in thy heart: And thou shalt tell them to thy children, and thou shalt meditate upon them sitting in thy house, and walking on thy journey, sleeping and rising. And thou shalt bind them as a sign on thy hand, and they shall be and shall move between thy eyes. And thou shalt write them in the entry, and on the doors of thy house.

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

1200
Probably the death of Moses

1200-965 BC

SETTLING IN CANAAN, MONARCHY

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

1050-586 BC

The Golden Age of Israel

965 BC

REIGN OF SOLOMON

950 BC

YAHWIST TRADITION

The oldest source is the Jehovistic, or Yahwist (J, from its use of the divine name Jahwe—modern Jehovah—or Yahweh), commonly dated in the 10th or 9th century BC.

J includes a full narrative account from creation to the conquest of Canaan by Israel.

Source: Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2007

931BC

Roboam (King of Judah, capital of Samaria)
Jeroboam (King of Israel)

926 BC

DIVISION OF THE KINGDOM

9TH CENTURY (900-801)

SAMARITAN CANON
-contains only the first 5 books of the Old Testament (Pentateuch/Torah)
-used by the separatist Samaritans (only a few remaining today) SAMARITAN CANON

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

8th BC

ELOHIST TRADITION

The second is the Elohist (E, from its use of the general name Elohim for God), usually dated in the 8th century BC.

E is no longer a complete narrative, if it ever was; its earliest material concerns Abraham

Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2007

721 BC

FALL OF SAMARIA, END OF NORTHERN KINGDOM; FUSION OF YAHWIST & ELOHIST TRADITIONS

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

7th CENTURY BC

DEUTERONOMIST TRADITION

Next is Deuteronomy (D, limited to that book and a few other passages), dated in the late 7th century BC
Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2007

5th CENTURY BC

PRIESTLY TRADITION

Last is the Priestly Writer (P, for its emphasis on cultic law and priestly concerns), dated in the 6th or 5th century BC.

P concentrates on the covenant and the revelation of the law at Mount Sinai, but sets that into a narrative that begins with creation.

Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2007

Period of Oral Tradition handed down

YAHWIST (950 BC),
ELOHIST (850 BC),
DEUTERONOMIST (700 BC),
PRIESTLY (6TH CENTURY BC),
ALEXANDRIAN (301-200 BC)

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)/EWTN

400-300 BC

FUSION OF JEPD (JEHOVISTIC/YAWIST,
ELOHIST,
PRIESTLY,
DEUTRONOMIC TRADITIONS)

SEPTUAGINT (“LXX”) [10] HEBREW CANON collected.
Greek translation. Hebrew a dying language; dead by 135 AD.
Greek the common language. Aramaic the common language.

3RD CENTURY BC

ALEXANDRIAN CANON

-contained 56 books
-Greek translation from the Masoretic (Hebrew, Aramaic) texts
-included the Deuterocanon Greek original
-used by Jesus and by the Diaspora
-translated into Latin during first and second century AD.

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

In Alexandria, Demetrius of Phaleron is the librarian of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246 BC); he wanted copies of the Jewish Law for the Library of Alexandria. Such is perhaps the beginning of a Greek translation of the Torah

This work of translation was done by 72 Hebrew scholars who were sent by the High Priest Eleazar.
Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

180 BC

Jesus Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) presupposes a collection of sacred books (Chapters 44-49)

150 BC

COMPLETION OF SEPTUAGINT VERSION

Source: JOSEPHUS, ANTIQUITIES, BOOK II, CHAPTER 8, PARA 5.

100 BC

PALESTINIAN CANON

– considered the Hebrew Bible by conservative Judaizers
-contains only 39 books
-decided at the Council of Jamnia (100 AD)
-criteria for inclusion:
a. scripture must be written in Hebrew/Aramaic
b. must be written within Palestine during some
remote age
c. contents must conform with Torah
d. was written before the time of Esdras (444 BC)

AD – YEAR OF THE LORD

36/37AD

Josephus gave the list of Jewish sacred books

50 AD

Council of Jerusalem

51 AD

FIRST NEW TESTAMENT WRITING
1 Thessalonians

68-70 AD

Jewish Council of Jamnia (or Jabneh)

80-90 AD – DIDACHE WRITTEN

Didache (Greek, “teaching”), ancient Christian manual of instruction, also called Teaching of the Twelve Apostles. It was probably written in Syria during the 1st century, although some critics have estimated a later date of composition. The document was unknown until its discovery in 1873 and its publication in 1883 by Philotheos Bryennios, Greek metropolitan of Nicomedia.

The Didache is a compendium of moral precepts, of instructions on the organization of Christian communities and of regulations pertaining to liturgical worship. It contains the oldest recorded eucharistic prayers and directives on baptism, fasting, prayer, and the treatment of bishops, deacons, and prophets. Revered by many early Christians as equal in importance to the books of the New Testament, the Didache was used to instruct converts. Today it serves as a valuable source of information about early Christian life and belief.

SOURCE: Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008.

90 AD

Rabbi Akiba, an enemy of the Christian Church, decreed another canon of OT. The first to exclude 7 deuterocanonical books

About 95 AD, the Jews at a Council of Jamnia (or Jabneh) submitted their second books to renewed inspection. Apparently, they wanted to exclude from the canon any book which:
-seemed to deviate from the Pentateuch
-was written after the time of Esdras (444 BC)
-was not written in Hebrew
-was not written in Palestine

(For these reasons many of the deuteroi would be excluded. But discussion continued on into the 2nd century even with regard to some of the protocanonical books)

Source: CFD MANUAL

100 (125) AD

LAST NEW TESTAMENT WRITING
2 Peter

CHRISTIAN ERA

| |
NT writers worked with Council of Rabbis at Jamnia collected
LXX; 300 of 350 OT quotes a Hebrew canon of 22/24 books; perhaps
in the NT are from LXX; pressured by needs of Apostolic Church;
Unfixed canon. Unfixed canon.
c. 200 AD |

| [11] |
| |
Fixed canon: end of Fixed canon: end of 2nd, early
2nd century; 3rd century.
| |
Melito of Sardis, |
c. 170 AD |
| |
ALEXANDRIAN CANON PALESTINIAN CANON
45/46 books 39 books
(Lamentations was considered
a part of Jeremiah)

Source: EWTN

110 AD

IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH, St.

Birth and to use the term
“catholic church”

Source: EWTN

120 AD

PAPIAS OF HIERAPOLIS (Phrygia)
+ knew of a collection of the
“sayings of the Lord” to have
been written in Aramaic or Hebrew
by Matthew

Source: EWTN

The protocanonical (from the Greek “proto” meaning first) books are those books of the Bible that were admitted into the canon of the Bible with little or no debate (e.g., The Pentateuch of the Old Testament and the Gospels of the New Testament).

The deuterocanonical (from the Greek”deutero” meaning second) books are those books of the Bible that were under discussion for a while until doubts about their canonicity were resolved (e.g., Sirach and Baruch of the Old Testament, and the Johannine epistles of the New Testament).

The apocryphal (from the Greek “apokryphos” meaning hidden) books have multiple meanings:

(1) a complimentary meaning – that the sacred books were too exalted for the general public;
(2) pejorative meaning – that the orthodoxy of the books were questioned;
(3) heretical meaning – that the books were forbidden to be read; and lastly
(4) neutral meaning – simply non-canonical books, the meaning the word has today.

Another word, pseudepigrapha (from the Greek meaning false writing) is used for works clearly considered to be false.

Source: EWTN

Deuterocanonical

1. Tobit
2. Judit
3. Kaalam ni Solomon
4. Baruc
5. 1 Macabeo
6. 2 Macabeo
7. Sirac

Deuterocanonical

1. ESTER (Greek) – parte sa ESTER (HEBREW)
2. ANG SULAT NI JEREMIAS
3. TULO KA BATAN-ONG LALAKI
– parte sa BASAHON NI DANIEL SA HUBAD NGA GREGO
4. SUSANA – parte sa BASAHON NI DANIEL SA HUBAD NGA GREGO
5. SI BEL UG ANG DRAGON – parte sa ASAHON NI DANIEL SA HUBAD
NGA GREGO

(JUDAISM) 39 or 24 BOOKS?

• PENTATEUCH 5 – 1 = 4
• MAJOR PROPHETS 12 – 1 = 11
15
mao nga … 39 – 15 = 24

71 BOOKS OLD TESTAMENT

44 BOOKS OLD TESTAMENT:
1 -JEREMIAS
-PAGBANGUTAN (LAMENTATION)
-BARUC (KAPITULO 1-5)
-SULAT NI JEREMIAS
(KAPITULO 6 SA LIBRO NI BARUC)
43 –
+ 27 books of New Testament
71 BOOKS

72 BOOKS OLD TESTAMENT

45 BOOKS OLD TESTAMENT:
2 1-JEREMIAS & PAGBANGUTAN (LAMENTATION)
1-BARUC (KAPITULO 1-5) & SULAT NI JEREMIAS
(KAPITULO 6 SA LIBRO NI BARUC)
43 –
+ 27 books of New Testament
72 BOOKS

73 BOOKS OLD TESTAMENT

46 BOOKS OLD TESTAMENT:
3 1-JEREMIAS
1- PAGBANGUTAN (LAMENTATION)
1-BARUC (KAPITULO 1-5) & SULAT NI JEREMIAS
(KAPITULO 6 SA LIBRO NI BARUC)
43 –
+ 27 books of New Testament
73 BOOKS

Ang mga bahin sa 2 ka libro sa DAANG KASABUTAN

ESTER (GRIYEGO)
DANIEL (GRIYEGO)
AWIT SA TULO KA
BATAN-ONG LALAKI, SUSANA
UG SI BEL UG ANG DRAGON)

170 AD

‘PESHITTO’ FIRST NT CANON (excludes the ff. Deuterocanonial books for reason of uncertainty in authorship: Hebrews, Jude, 2nd John, 3rd John, 2nd Peter, James, Revelation

PERIOD OF CONTROVERSY

The following reasons serve as the background for the controversy as to what books are inspired and should be contained in the Bible:
-existence of the three canons (Samaritan, 9th C. BC; Alexandrian, 3rd C. BC; Palestinian, 100 AD -OT)

SAMARITAN CANON – 9th CENTURY BC
-contains only the first 5 books of the Old Testament (Pentateuch/Torah)
-used by the separatist Samaritans (only a few remaining today)

ALEXANDRIAN CANON- 3rd CENTURY BC
-contained 56 books
-Greek translation from the Masoretic (Hebrew, Aramaic) texts
-included the Deuterocanon Greek original
-used by Jesus and by the Diaspora
-translated into Latin during first and second century AD.

PALESTINIAN CANON – 100 BC
– considered the Hebrew Bible by conservative Judaizers
-contains only 39 books
-decided at the Council of Jamnia (100 AD)
-criteria for inclusion:
a. scripture must be written in Hebrew/Aramaic
b. must be written within Palestine during some remote age
c. contents must conform with Torah
d. was written before the time of Esdras (444 BC)

-doubts on the Deuterocanon shared by St. Jerome, Athanasius, Gregory Nazianzen, Gregory the Great, John Damascene, Thomas Aquinas, Cajetan

-increased writing of Apocryphal books patterned after New Testament writings

-teaching of Marcion rejecting most Old Testament and New Testament (Luke, Hebrew,
Pauline Pastoral Epistles)

-rise of Montanism and Gnosticism

-existence of Moratorian Fragment (180 AD), a first attempt of an official list but excluded Hebrew, James, 1-2 Peter, 3 John

-Origen’s Commentary on the Book of Joshua which included the complete New Testament books

-in practice, the Deuterocanons were used by all Christians in liturgy, translations, and versions (Vulgate, Syriac, Coptic, Aramaic)

Source: How The Bible Came To Be (Josefino Roña)

185 AD
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons
Developed a New Testament Canon (without 3 John, James or 2 Peter)

Source: EWTN

190-220 AD

Tertullian, the first to use the term NOVUM TESTAMENTUM applied to the Christian writings of the New Testatment (NT). Then the term Old Testament (OT) to the Jewish writings and NT to the Christian writings.

“There are reasons for thinking that at this date (170AD) the corresponding word “testamentum” was already in use amongst the Latins. In any case it was common in the time of Tertullian.”

Mileto, Bishop of Sardis, c. 170 AD, created the earliest list of books identical to Roman Catholic canon today.

Source: EWTN

200 AD

Muratorian Fragment contained a Canon similar to Trent

Source: EWTN

250 AD

KING EUMENES OF PERGAMOS
Invented the rolled parchment or ‘megillah’

2 Timothy 4:13 “When you come, bring my coat that I left in Troas with Carpus; bring the books too, and especially the ones made of parchment.”

250 AD

Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea
History of the Church written;
referred to James, Jude, 2 Peter, and 2 and 3 John
as “disputed, yet similar to most.”

Source: EWTN

342 AD

Codex Vaticanus (Vatican Manuscript). Legend has it that St. Athanasius brought it to Rome.

The oldest vellum manuscripts are the three great uncial codices of the Bible, the Codex Vaticanus, the Codex Sinaiticus, and the Codex Alexandrinus of the 4th and 5th centuries AD

350 AD

Moratorian Canon (FRAGMENTS)
Includes 7 NT deuterocanonical books.
Also includes other apocryphals:
Epistle of Barnabas,
Epistle of Clement,
Shepherd of Hermas,
Didache,
Gospel of Thomas,
Proto-Gospel of St. James,
Letter of our Lord to Agar.

360 (to 384) AD

EARLY TRANSLATION
Pope St. Damasus commissioned St. Jerome to issue a corrected text.

Source: EWTN

360 AD

St. Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria listed 27 books of the NT

360 AD

The Council of Laodicea, c. 360 AD, produced a list of books similar to today’s canon. This was one of the Church’s earliest decisions on a canon.

Source: EWTN

Source: EWTN

382 AD

JEROME, St. 345?-419
+ secretary to Pope Damasus I in 382
The Vulgate: translated the Bible
(Stridon, present day Yugoslavia)
from Hebrew and Greek into Latin
+ biblical scholar 383-384 in Rome

Source: EWTN

382 AD

Council of Rome ( 382 AD) prompted Pope Damasus’ Decree.
Pope Damasus, c. 382 AD, wrote a Decree listing the books of Trent’s canon.

Source: EWTN

382 AD

The Canon of the New Testament was recognized by an assembly of church officials in Rome in 382 (AD) and Carthage in 397 (AD).

Source: Microsoft ® Encarta

393 AD

Council of Hippo (in north Africa), 393 AD

Council of Hippo (No. Africa) (393 AD), approved a list of OT (Old Testament) and NT (New Testament) Canon same as later in (Council) of Trent.

Source: EWTN

397 AD
Council of Carthage (No. Africa) 397 AD, approved a list of Old Testament) and NT (New Testament) Canon same as later in (Council) of Trent.

Council of Carthage (also in north Africa), 397 AD, from which Protestant and Evangelicals take as the authority for their canon of the New Testament, 27 books, approved the Alexandrian canon of the Greek Septuagint, 46 books, as the canon for the Old Testament.

405 AD

Exuperius, Bishop of Toulouse (405 AD) Wrote to Pope Innocent I requesting a list of canonical books. Pope Innocent listed the Trent canon.

Pope Innocent I (405 AD) (Bishop of Rome, 401-417) Responded to a request by Exuperius, Bishop of Toulouse, with a list of canonical books of Scripture; this list was the same as later approved by the Council of Trent.
Source: EWTN

494 AD

Council of Rome decreed that Latin Vulgate – Church, official interpreter

691 AD

Conformity of the Eastern Church

900 AD

Vulgate universally accepted

1228 AD

Cardinal Stephen Langton created the chapters of both
the Old and New Testaments in the Latin version
of the Bible in 1228 AD.

1228-1263 AD

Cardinal Hugo de Sancto Caro (Hugo de Saint-Char)
CHAPTERS

1450- 1456 AD

Gutenberg Bible, known also as the Mazarin Bible and the 42-Line Bible, it is a Latin edition of the Bible, printed at Mainz, Germany, sometime between 1450 and 1456

It is interesting to note that the Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible, was the Latin Vulgate Bible with the Alexandrian canon, 46 books, of the Greek Septuagint.

October 31, 1517 AD

Martin Luther separated from the Church

1525-31 AD

Tyndale Bible
PRINTING OF BIBLE-PROTESTANT

In 1525 the English reformer William Tyndale translated the New Testament from the Greek text, copies of which were printed in Germany and smuggled into England. Tyndale’s translation of the Old Testament from the Hebrew text was only partly completed. His simple prose and popular idiom established a style in English translation that was continued in the Authorized Version of 1611 (the King James Version) and eventually in the Revised Standard Version of 1946-52.
Note: Authorized Version of 1611 (the King James Version) – still 73 books (with
Deuterocanon)
Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008
1528 AD

Fr. Sanctes Pagninus, a Dominican priest divided the OT chapters to verses

1534 AD

Luther translated the Bible into German
with 73 books, name deuterocanonical with Apocryphal

1551 AD

Robert Estienne (also Stephanus),
French printer, made the Concordance;
divided the NT chapters to verses

1560 AD

Geneva Bible – 66 books; due to Calvinistic and anti-ecclesiastical feelings

1563 AD

at the Council of Trent, 1563,
the Old Testament canon of 46 books following the
Alexandrian Greek Septuagint.

Council of Trent 1545-1563 The canon of OT and NT received final
(An ecumenical council definitions: 45 books in the OT; 27 in
called to respond to the the NT;
heresy of the Reformers); “Henceforth the books of the OT and the
NT, protocanonical and deutercanonical
alike, in their entirety and with all
their parts, comprise the canon and are
held to be of equal authority.” The
ancient Vulgate edition of the Bible was
called the authoritative edition of the
Bible.

Source: EWTN

1582-1609 AD

Douay-Rheims
PRINTING OF BIBLE-CATHOLIC

1611 AD

King James Version, deuterocanonical books still included

1648 AD

The Puritans in the Westminster Confession
opposed the use of deuterocanonical, hence, omitted

Puritanism, movement arising within the Church of England in the latter part of the 16th century that sought to purify, or reform, that church and establish a middle course between Roman Catholicism and the ideas of the Protestant reformers

Puritan theology is a version of Calvinism

Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008

Puritans – In its original meaning it signified those who strove
for aworship purified from all taint of Catholicism . . .

Source: CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA)

1870 AD

VATICAN I.
It reaffirmed Council of Trent

1957 AD

THE DIVISION OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION
OF THE NATIONAL CHURCHES OF CHRIST (US)
have decided to include again the 7 books omitted
by the CALVINIST and PURITANS

1959-1964 AD

VATICAN II.
ECUMINICAL.

Protestant theologians and Bible experts were have agreed that the Catholic Church was right regarding the Alexandrian Canon of the OT which includes the deuterocanonial books

AS a result, Protestant Bible was printed with deuterocanical books with the title Apocrypha (The Oxford Annotated Bible)

Source: EWTN

Pope Benedict XV

The individual authors of these books worked in the full freedom under the divine inspiration, each of them in accordance with his individual nature and character”

Nganong ang Santos nga Kasulatan “linamdagan” man?

Pope Benedict XV- The individual authors of these books worked in the full freedom under the
divine inspiration, each of them in accordance with his individual nature and character”

Ang Santos nga Kasulatan gitawag nga “linamdagan” sa talagsaong paagi….

Ang biblikanhong lamdag nagpasabot nga ang mga balaan ug linatid (canonical) nga mga basahon sa Daan ug Bag-o nga Kasabutan, sa tanan ug sa kinatibukan, nasulat ubos sa lamdag sa Espiritu Santo, sa ingon nga ang Dios mismo maoy ilang “magsusulat” ug ang Biblia “Pulong sa Dios”.
Source: Dei Verbum 11; Catechism of the Catholic Church 105-106

Ang Dios nagpili ug pipila ka mga tawong magsusulat, kinsa isip matuod nga mga magsusulat migamit sa ilang tawhanong galamhan ug katakus, apan inagak sa Espiritu Santo nga naglamdag sa ilang mga hunahuna ug nagpalihok sa ilang kabubut-on, nga ilang gisulat ang buot sa Dios nga isulat.

Ang biblikanhong lamdag, diay, maoy usa ka tuga sa talagsaong kalihokan sa Dios, nga gihatag ngadto sa mga matag magsusulat, sa mga tighashas (editors), ug sa mga tigpundok (compilers) sa mga sinulat, nga sakop sa katilingban, alang sa kaayohan sa katilingban.

Dinhi naumol ang mga balaang teksto sa Daan ug Bag-ong Kasabutan. Niining maong mga teksto nahasukad ang Apostolikanhong Simbahan, nga nagpabiling bugtong tinugyanan sa Dios alang kanato ug sa tanang kaliwatan nga Cristiano.

Nganong nalangan man ang tigpundok (compilers) sa pagtigum sa mga basahon sa Biblia labi na ang New Testament?

Sa wala pa ang tuig 397 AD (Council of Carthage), ang mga nagkalain-laing mga libro wala pa matigum apan anaa gitipigan na sila sa ubang grupo o kahugpungan (congregations).

Ang mga pagpanglutos batok sa Simbahang Catolico, nga misamot kakusog, mipugong aron kining mga libro sa New Testament ma-authenticated and placed under one cover.

Hinuon, kining importante nga trabaho (compilation of the New Testament books) nagsugod sa dihang si Emperador Constantino mihatag ug kalinaw sa Cristianismo (niadtong 313 AD) pinaagi sa paghatag sa mga Cristianos ug kagawasan nga ma-practice ang ilang relihiyon sa Roman Empire. Kini nga dokumento mao ang Edict of Milan.

(Source: Catholic Religion Proved by Protestant Bible)

“Persecution of the Christians was ended, and Constantine’s co-emperor, Licinius, joined him in issuing the Edict of Milan (313 AD), which mandated toleration of Christians in the Roman Empire.”
Source: Microsoft Encarta

Unsa man ang ubang problema nga giatubang niadtong gusto mosuta sa mga sulod sa New Testament?

Sa wala pa ilha ang mga linamdagang mga libro nga ingon niana, daghan pang libro ang nasulat ug gituhoan nga linamdagan usab; BUSA, ang Simbahang Catolico mihimo ug makuting examination.

Iyang gibahin ang mga basahon sa mosunod: Protocanonical, Deuterocanonical ug Apocryphal.

1. Ang Protocanonical books mao kadtong mga libro nga walay duda ug pangutana officially accepted sa Simbahang Catolico nga divinely inspired.

  1. Ang Deuterocanonical books, sama sa Protocanonical books, gidawat sa Simbahang Catolico nga linamdagan human ang mga ebidensya nasuta ug ang mga pagduda napapas mahitungod sa ilang inspired character.

3. Ang Apocryphal books mao kadtong mga libro nga dili linamdagan.

Example. Ang Ebanghelyo adunay 4 ka magsusulat: sumala ni San Mateo, San Marcos, San Lucas ug San Juan. Apan adunay pay laing 11 nga Apocryphal nga apil sa pagpili – busa 15 tanan.

Sa Biblia aduna lamay 1 ka Pinadayag (Revelation), ang katapusang libro sa New Testament ug sa Biblia. Apan apil sa gipilian, aduna pay 6 ka Apocryphal – busa 7 tanan.

Ang mga biblical scholars migahin ug daghang katuigan sa Holy Land aron sa pagtuon sa mga orihinal nga pinulungan diha sa mga sinulat sa New Testament.

 Kinsa man sa katapusan, ang nag-decide unsang libro ang linamdagan ug busa mahaapil sa New Testament o Biblia?

Sa duol na ang 400 AD, ang Simbahang Catolico sa usa ka General Council ginamit ang iyang infallible authority(dili masayop sa mga butang mga may kalambigitan sa pagtuo ug moralidad), finally decided unsang libro ang linamdagan ug unsa ang dili.

DUHA RAY MAHIMONG NAHITABO, INSAKTO ANG SIMBAHAN NIINING GENERAL COUNCIL O DILI?

Kon ang Simbahang Catolico wala masayop kaniadto, nganong masayop man siya karon? Ang Biblia nagpakita sa otoridad sa Simbahan… nga siya wala masayop (infallibility).

(Infallibility, in Christian theology, the doctrine that in matters of faith and morals the Church, both in teaching and in believing, is protected from substantive error by divine dispensation. Source: Microsoft Encarta)

Aduna bay dakong kalainan tali sa unsay gisugo ni Cristo (nga itudlo sa mga Apostoles) ug unsay nahasulat sa New Testament?

Ang atong Ginoo nagsugo sa iyang mga Apostoles sa pagtudlo SA TANAN unsa man gani ang iyang GISUGO. Ang Simbahan kinahanglan motudlo sa tanan.

John 14:26 The Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you everything and make you remember all that I have told you.

Hinuon, ang giingong Protestant Bible mismo nagtudlo usab nga ang Biblia wala maghupot sa tanang doktrina sa Ginoo Jesu-Cristo.

John 20:30 In his disciples’ presence Jesus performed many other miracles which are not written down in this book.

John 21:25 Now, there are many other things that Jesus did. If they were all written down one by one, I suppose that the whole world could not hold the books that would be written.

Ang Biblia ba klaro nga nag-pasabot nga adunay wala masulat nga pulong sa Dios (unwritten word of God)?

Sumala sa mga teksto sa Biblia nga gikutlo nato sa unahan ( John 20:30 ug John 21:25), ang New Testament klarong miangkon nga WALA KINI NAGHUPOT o NAKA-RECORD SA TANANG GIHIMO NI CRISTO UG BUSA consequently SA TANAN NIYANG GITUDLO.

Ug tungod kay ang Biblia “dili kompleto” (incomplete), kini nanginahanglan ug katugbang pag-abag niini. Apostolic Tradition supplements the Bible. (Source: Catholic Religion Proved by Protestant Bible)

Kanus-a nakompleto ang New Testament – and placed under one cover?

Sa tuig 397 AD, pinaagi sa Council of Carthage. Ug gikan niini, ang mga DILI Catolico mikopya o mikuha sa ilang New Testament gikan sa Simbahang Catolico. (Source: Catholic Religion Proved by Protestant Bible)

“We are obliged to yield many things to the Catholics – (for example) that they possess the Word of God which we received from them; otherwise we should have known nothing about it.” (Source: Martin Luther, Father of Protestantism in his comment about St. John Chapter 16)

Hangtud sa 397 AD, ang pipila ka mga Cristyano nakabasa o aduna lamay access sa PARTE sa New Testament – ug dili kompleto. Sa niining maong sitwasyon, magamit ba ang ‘Bible-Alone” theory? Ang tubag: Dili.

Council of Trent 1545-1563 The canon of OT and NT received final
(An ecumenical council definitions: 45 books in the OT; 27 in
called to respond to the the NT;
heresy of the Reformers); “Henceforth the books of the OT and the
NT, protocanonical and deutercanonical
alike, in their entirety and with all
their parts, comprise the canon and are
held to be of equal authority.” The
ancient Vulgate edition of the Bible was
called the authoritative edition of the
Bible.

Source: EWTN